Badí‘ (Arabic: ﺑﺪﻳﻊ 1852 – 1869) was the title of Mírzá Áqá Buzurg-i-Nishapuri, also known by the title the Pride of Martyrs. He was the son of `Abdu'l-Majid-i-Nishapuri, a follower of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh.
Badí‘ is most famous for being the bearer of a tablet written by Bahá'u'lláh to Nasiri'd-Din Shah, for which he was tortured and killed at the age of 17. He is also one of the foremost Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
The Kitáb-i-Badí', a book written by Bahá'u'lláh, has no relation to the Badí‘ of this article.
Although Badí's father was a Bahá'í, Badí was originally not touched by the new religion. He was an unruly and rebellious youth, and his father described him as the "despair of the family". It was upon a meeting with Nabíl-i-A`zam that Badí‘ heard a poem by Bahá'u'lláh and began weeping. After finishing his studies, he gave away his possessions and set out on foot for Baghdad, where a significant number of Bahá'ís were under persecution. Finally he set out on foot from Mosul through Baghdad to the prison city of `Akka.
Banyan VINES was a computer network operating system and the set of computer network protocols it used to connect to client machines on the network. The name was an acronym for Virtual Integrated Network Service. Banyan Systems ran as a collection of services on top of AT&T UNIX System V, and based its core network protocols on the archetypical Xerox XNS stack. VINES was one of a group of XNS-based systems that also included Novell NetWare. It has since disappeared from the market, along with Banyan Systems.
James Allchin, who later worked as Group Vice President for Platforms at Microsoft Corporation until his retirement on January 30, 2007, was the chief architect of Banyan VINES.
VINES ran on a low-level protocol known as VIP—the VINES Internetwork Protocol—that was essentially identical to the lower layers of XNS. Addresses consisted of a 32-bit address and a 16-bit subnet that mapped to the 48-bit Ethernet address to route to machines. This meant that, like other XNS-based systems, VINES could only support a two-level internet.
The Bauer BAD-12 Gyrotrainer is a Czech autogyro, designed and produced by Bauer Avion of Prague. The aircraft is supplied as a complete ready-to-fly-aircraft.
The BAD-12 Gyrotrainer features a single main rotor, a two seats in tandem open cockpit with a windshield, tricycle landing gear with wheel pants, a triple tail and a four cylinder, air and liquid-cooled, four-stroke, dual-ignition 100 hp (75 kW) Rotax 912ULS engine in pusher configuration. The turbocharged 115 hp (86 kW) Rotax 914 and Subaru EJ22 are optional engines.
The aircraft fuselage is made from tubing, while the cockpit fairing is composite. The main rotor has a diameter of Its 8.70 m (28.5 ft). The BAD-12 has an empty weight of 284 kg (626 lb) and a gross weight of 450 kg (990 lb), giving a useful load of 166 kg (366 lb). The tricycle landing gear is supplemented with a small tailwheel to prevent dragging the tail on take-off. The tailboom has a bend in it to permit the installation of larger and more efficient propellers.
Health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social challenges. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in its 1948 constitution as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as lacking operational value and because of the problem created by use of the word "complete" Other definitions have been proposed, among which a recent definition that correlates health and personal satisfaction. Classification systems such as the WHO Family of International Classifications, including the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), are commonly used to define and measure the components of health. Health is that balanced condition of the living organism in which the integral, harmonious performance of the vital functions tends to the preservation of the organism and the normal development of the individual.
Health: An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine is a bimonthly peer-reviewed healthcare journal that covers research in the fields of health and the social sciences. The journal was established in 1997 with Alan Radley Loughborough University) as founding editor and is published by SAGE Publications.
Health is abstracted and indexed in Scopus and the Social Sciences Citation Index. According to the Journal Citation Reports, its 2013 impact factor is 1.324, ranking it 70 out of 136 journals in the category "Public, Environmental & Occupational Health (SSCI)" and 18 out of 37 journals in the category "Social Sciences, Biomedical".
Within the framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life. Reproductive health implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying and safer sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. One interpretation of this implies that men and women ought to be informed of and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of birth control; also access to appropriate health care services of sexual, reproductive medicine and implementation of health education programs to stress the importance of women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth could provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant.
Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. They are carbohydrates, composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose and galactose. The table or granulated sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide. (In the body, sucrose hydrolyses into fructose and glucose.) Other disaccharides include maltose and lactose. Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides. Chemically-different substances may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars. Some are used as lower-calorie food substitutes for sugar described as artificial sweeteners.
Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants, but are present in sufficient concentrations for efficient extraction only in sugarcane and sugar beet. Sugarcane refers to any of several species of giant grass in the genus Saccharum that have been cultivated in tropical climates in South Asia and Southeast Asia since ancient times. A great expansion in its production took place in the 18th century with the establishment of sugar plantations in the West Indies and Americas. This was the first time that sugar became available to the common people, who had previously had to rely on honey to sweeten foods. Sugar beet, a cultivated variety of Beta vulgaris, is grown as a root crop in cooler climates and became a major source of sugar in the 19th century when methods for extracting the sugar became available. Sugar production and trade have changed the course of human history in many ways, influencing the formation of colonies, the perpetuation of slavery, the transition to indentured labour, the migration of peoples, wars between sugar-trade–controlling nations in the 19th century, and the ethnic composition and political structure of the New World.